The Psychology of emotions and types of feelings
Emotional stability is the main component of a harmonious personality. Emotions and feelings in psychology are the connection between the inner state of a person and the external circumstances that surround him
Behavioral reactions, interaction with people around, circumstances directly depend on the ability to deal with your emotions in time, to present them correctly. Society requires increased self-control, but not in all cases it is justified, passes without consequences. Learning to manage feelings is useful, because emotional comfort is directly related to physical condition, illness, and setbacks.
Types of human emotions and feelings
In the psychology of emotions, emotions are the reaction of a person to the environment. The desire or unwillingness to participate in events around, a demonstration of an internal state: anger, longing or joy, falling in love.
Such a reaction is built to a subjective assessment of reality. It has been proven that feelings are directly dependent on the attitude towards oneself, they are built on the basis of the internal perception of the world, as well as the characteristics of the nervous system. The reaction to the same situation may vary from person to person.
- Emotions in psychology are divided into three categories according to their manifestation: Positive ones carry a positive charge. These include interest, joy, delight, exultation.
- The negative ones are negatively charged. For this category, the list is much wider: anger, resentment, longing, grief, shame, guilt, fear, insecurity.
- Neutrals can be positive or negative, but they do not have a strong emotional coloring, do not have violent manifestations. This is curiosity, surprise, revival.
Each reaction is accompanied by verbal manifestations: gestures, glances, words, intonations. If you are able to determine in time which of the emotions captured at a particular moment, you can learn to control them.
Table of human feelings and emotions
Despite the variety of manifestations, the types of emotions in psychology are reduced to four basic ones: joy, sadness, fear, anger. Each has subspecies. The degree of manifestation depends on the person and the situation.
|Basic reaction||Extended concept||Manifestations|
|Joy||Revitalization||Glitter of eyes, smile, desire to hug, open palms, laughter, relaxation, willingness to help.|
|Fear||Fright||Goosebumps, wide eyes, trembling, tension, trembling voice, chest pain, desire to hide, urge to leave.|
|Sadness||Yearning||A dull look, absent-mindedness, a quiet voice, a lowered head, weakness of the arms, the corners of the lips are lowered, the shoulders are raised, breathing is weak.|
|Anger||Anger||The palms are clenched into fists, body tension, an evil gleam of the eyes, a grin, a loud voice, a cry, a sharpness of phrases, a glance from under the brow, eyes protruding or narrowed, eyebrows brought together.|
Demonstration of emotions and feelings
Only children openly demonstrate their feelings. They are unfamiliar with reprimands for anger or excessive joy. Everything that finds a response in their personality immediately breaks out.
- The older a person gets, the more opportunities he has to control the emotional background. Consciously or under the influence of others, an adult learns to keep a reaction to surrounding events within himself. There are two ways to control yourself:
- Restraining against will, not expressing anger, not showing love. This method is the result of either upbringing or the psychological shock suffered.
Show emotions according to the situation, unwanted to work through mentally, turning from destructive to constructive or neutral. This method is the result of working on yourself. It is considered safer for mental and physical health.
Those who have been taught that it is wrong to react to situations may need to consult a specialist.
A person who is able not to close, but to control his condition, as well as to accurately recognize the emotions and feelings of others, is correlated with such a concept in psychology as emotional intelligence.
The degree of manifestation of their own reactions is commensurate with the situation: such individuals do not lose their temper about a broken nail, unsalted soup, but they know how to support, cheer up if a loved one is feeling sad or angry.
How are feelings different from emotions?
The concepts of emotion and feeling are close in meaning, but still not identical. In scientific psychology, these terms define different components of a single emotional background.
Feelings are deeper states that determine the stable attitude of the individual to the surrounding events. They are often less pronounced, have smoothed manifestations. Emotions are a surge reaction to a specific situation, cause vivid manifestations, and are often born unconsciously.
In the psychology of emotions, feelings are more conscious manifestations of an attitude toward a particular object. A person can experience the whole gamut of emotions, but at the same time not show feelings, if there are no prerequisites for this. For example, do not hate the enemy if the enemy does not exist. At the same time, show anger if something was the reason for this.
The feelings inherent in a particular person are significantly influenced by society and the surrounding space. Emotions, on the other hand, are a subjective assessment based on an inner understanding of reality and the characteristics of the nervous system.
Kinds of feelings
In fact, this part of the perception of the environment is difficult to classify, since it is multifaceted and diverse. The types of feelings are conventionally defined in psychology:
|Moral||Moral||Humanity||The relationship of people, attitude to their own position in society, the definition of acceptable behavior for oneself, the framework of what is permitted.|
|Call of Duty|
|Intellectual||Specific||Inspiration||Determine the attitude towards intellectual needs.|
|Thirst for knowledge|
|Satisfaction with new knowledge, discoveries|
|Praxic||Choice of activity||Profession||Determine the attitude to everyday worries, responsibilities, relationships with society.|
|Aesthetic||Satisfaction from contemplation, touching, listening||Love for nature||Determine the range of interests aimed at satisfying aesthetic needs|
|Love for technology|
|Works of art, architecture, sculpture|
There are more complex feelings that cannot be unequivocally attributed to one of the types. So, for example, love awakens a person to strive for knowledge, disclosure of aesthetic potential, inspires, determines the choice of activity.
What are feelings for?
The functions or the psychology of emotions and feelings are determined by their ability to leave information about significant events and objects.
• Reflective – an assessment of what is happening in order to determine the degree of danger in order to find ways to prevent it;
• Stimulating – feelings induce to look for ways to solve certain problems, to determine goals for the future;
• Reinforcing – thanks to feelings, a person remembers significant events, giving his own subjective assessment;
• Switching – help to prioritize, identify more important objects, actions, decisions. In other words, it is willpower;
• Adaptive – on the basis of feelings once experienced, a person can more easily adapt to a new reality;
• Communicative – the language of feelings is one of the most effective ways to interact with others.
Managing your emotions
Creation and destruction are two extremes to which human emotions lead. There is an important rule in the psychology of emotions: in order to be a harmonious person, one must learn to manage emotions themselves, and not just their manifestations.
Misunderstandings, conflicts, quarrels arise from a lack of control. Physical illness, nervous exhaustion, and other psychosomatic phenomena are the result of incorrect elaboration: attempts to show joy instead of sadness, to hide anger inside.
How do Emotions arise?
To better understand yourself, to work through dangerous situations in time, you need to understand the basics of the psychology of emotions.
A person adopts basic reactions from those who take care of him in the first year of life: parents, close relatives, nannies, guardians. The child learns to react to the world in the same way as others do.
The craving for learning to respond correctly is inherent at the genetic level, reinforced by interaction with society. But psychology does not yet give an unambiguous answer to the question of whether there are innate emotions and feelings. Most likely, a newborn is only able to react on an unconscious level: to round his eyes in fear, scream out of indignation, if he is uncomfortable, to follow a toy that is interesting.
But the moments when to manifest them still remain behind the environment where the baby is. Therefore, some children wake up from every rustle, while others will not be woken up by the barking of dogs or the noise outside the window: they do not emotionally react to the familiar environment.
In an adult state, a person already has his own set of reactions to surrounding events, an individual “card index” of feelings. This is called the emotional background in psychology. For some it is stable, for others, it is not. Someone we consider calm, confident, consistent. Others are remembered as anxious, they do not have confidence in themselves and those around them, they will “hysterize” for no apparent reason, worry too much.
The higher the emotional intelligence, the more comfortable it is to communicate with the person. Psychologists call one of the basic methods to win over people to control their own emotional background. A variety of people are drawn to such personalities, it remains only to learn how to choose the most necessary ones, carefully getting rid of energy vampires.
The non-verbal expression of emotions
To learn to control yourself and read others, you need to know what emotions and feelings are in psychology, and how they manifest themselves. Knowing body language is especially helpful.
In fiction, there are phrases like “Nothing betrayed his excitement, except for a slight tremor of the right knee.” Sometimes even subtle symbols are enough to read a person at a certain moment, and then use the knowledge gained with benefit.
Movement, gestures, looks, head tilt, or erect posture can all tell a lot about a person’s condition. Non-verbal cues include:
- Look: burning, extinct, running;
- Skin color, condition: pale, red, with perspiration, covered with wrinkles;
- Tremor: trembling of hands, fingers, lips, eyelashes, legs;
- Heartbeat: fast, slow;
- Breathing: confused, measured, noisy, stringy;
- Posture: stooped, shoulders high, shoulders straightened, back too straight, posture relaxed;
- Objects in the hands that a person twists, touches, unconsciously holds. He can do it quickly, slowly, chaotically, in order.
There are actually a lot of non-verbal manifestations. Body language needs to be studied for a long time, consistently.
It is on non-verbal manifestations that an ordinary untrained person cannot control that the principle of the lie detector is built. Sensitive sensors read the slightest changes in the client’s reactions, conclude: a liar or an honest person is being tested.
Verbal expression of emotions
This item includes everything related to speech. From specific verbal formulations like “I’m happy”, “I’m very angry”, “I’m sad” to words woven into the context. The stronger the emotion or feeling, the brighter the sound coloration of the expressions. An exclamation for joy, a cry for anger, a whisper, or a dull tone for longing. Raised tone, slight sadness, adding emotionally colored words from the state category (good, bad, uncomfortable, great).
Changes in the tone and timbre of the voice, a person learns to read from the first months of life, as soon as the brain connects the organs of perception. We correlate shades of speech with non-verbal manifestations and the surrounding situation.
By the age of 1.5–2 years, the child learns to identify the emotional background of his loved ones by voice. By adolescence, a personal set of emotional colors of speech is formed, based on the lifestyle and reactions of the surrounding society.
Words used in context may not have a bright color, not give a clear understanding of the mood. But thanks to the psychology of emotions and feelings, we read the emotions conveyed by the author of the message. This technique is often used by deceivers, presenting thoughts in such a context that the listener has the impression they need.
The outward expression of emotions
Everything would be very simple if everyone said what he feels. But the older a person becomes, the more skillfully he can mask some experiences with others. For example, he is sad, but adding joy to his voice and smiling, he will seem serene and cheerful.
For those interlocutors who do not have sensitivity, this is quiet enough so as not to go into details of the emotional background. But there can be no talk of closeness, heart-to-heart talks with such an attitude.
To learn how to communicate with people, you need to be able to read their inner world. For joy to see sadness, for fake calmness, to define nervousness. It is also important to understand how strong this or that latent feeling is, whether a person needs support and help.
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